This guide is designed to suggest consistent solutions to common problems faced by anyone writing about the University of Cincinnati. Professional communicators from across the university originally developed the style guide in 1994. It is updated regularly through the Division of Governmental Relations and University Communications.
UC Stylebook is intended as an adjunct to the Associated Press Style Guide and Libel Manual primarily and to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary secondarily. Some listings evoke grammar rules, and some address strictly style issues. When AP and M-W disagree, the listing here will usually point out which guideline we have followed.
In choosing AP style as a basis to follow, the original writers of UC's stylebook did so to focus on external, general audiences. For some departments with specialized audiences, other stylebooks, including those required by particular academic disciplines, may be better choices. Whether or not everyone agrees with all the recommendations in this guide, its intent is to help us achieve consistency of style in our university-wide writing.
When writing about the Academic Health Center, you may want to consult its own style guide. UC employees, especially new ones, may find it helpful to review this list of UC idioms and jargon. The UC Stylebook also has an addendum of food-related names and terms and a spelling checklist.
Questions or comments? Please email Deb Rieselman.
Use the article a before words pronounced with a beginning consonant sound, including a pronounced h, a long u and the word one. Examples: a historian, a horse, a hysterical joke, a union, such a one as this.
Use an before words pronounced with a beginning vowel sound and a silent h (which results in a vowel sound). Examples: an onion, an umbrella, an hour, an honest man.
When an article appears before an abbreviation, acronym or numeral, choose one based upon pronunciation. Examples: a UC student, a U.S. senator, an 11th hour project, an NKU collaboration.
Use American Association of University Professors on first reference.
An abbreviation is any shortened version of a word or phrase. Examples: Mrs. Dr., Ft. (fort), ft. (foot), St. (for street or saint), etc., ASAP. The two common forms of abbreviations are acronyms, initialisms and truncations. Words can also be abbreviated if they fall in the following categories:
The use of periods and capital letters vary extensively. When an abbreviation falls at the end of a sentence, do not add an another period. Example: We live in the U.S.
The addition of punctuation following an abbreviation at the end of the sentence is acceptable with it is punctuation other than a period. Example: Do you live in the U.S.?
Abbreviations are more commonly used in tabular material and technical writing.
The discipline in which the degree was earned also remains lowercase. Examples: bachelor of science in electrical engineering, master's degree in fine arts.
Do not routinely list all degrees in copy, but use as needed in the context. MD and RN are the two degrees most often needed to clarify a person's position of medical authority.
If listing a degree is necessitated by the audience and the degree is listed after a name, it must be set off with commas. Example: John Joseph, MS in biology, will lead the discussion. Randall Smith, Eng ’94, will attend.
Capitalize words in academic departments only when using the official department name or if proper nouns are being used. Examples: He is studying journalism in the English department, but also spends a lot of time picking up classes in the math department. She wants to earn a professional writing certificate in the Department of English and Comparative Literature.
Academic Health Center
This term refers to UC's four health-related colleges (the College of Medicine, College of Allied Health Sciences, College of Nursing and the James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy), as well as Hoxworth Blood Center. The colleges are located on the university's medical campus. (See entry for campuses. For teaching, patient-care and research affiliates of the Academic Health Center, see affiliates.)
The following are official full-time faculty ranks used at the university (from lowest to highest rank). Double-check any other ranks in the university telephone directory. This listing does not include part-time teachers who are usually called adjuncts or lecturers: instructor [in], assistant professor [of], associate professor [of], professor [of].
For librarians: beginning librarian, assistant librarian, associate librarian, associate senior librarian, senior librarian.
The following qualifiers, added to the above ranks, are used to denote faculty affiliation, but persons with qualified ranks are not eligible for tenure: field service, adjunct, research, clinical, visiting.
Very infrequently a professor is recognized for uncommon merit and achievement with one of the following ranks, reflecting affiliation not just with a particular department, but also with the entire university:
When referring to the academic year (August through May), use the format 2012-13. Do not capitalize fall semester or similar terms. (See years.)
When writing copy for general audiences, accent marks generally are not used, which is in keeping with the AP guildeline that omits accent marks because they "won't transmit through computer systems." In academic copy, accent marks may be appropriate. Examples for general copy: Correct -- fiance, resume (a noun, as used for the document that accompanaies a job application), expose (a noun, as in "an expostion of facts"), crepe, creme, voila, facade, pina colada, naive. Incorrect -- fiancé, résumé, exposé, crêpe, crème, voilà, façade, piña colada, naïve.
An acronym is an abbreviation in which each letter represents the initial letter or letters of words given in a series. The letters form a new word that is pronounced as such (ASAP). Initialism, on the other hand, are pronounced as individual letters (FBI).
Periods are generally omitted unless doing so would spell an unrelated word. Acronyms are most often proper nouns, but not exclusively so. Examples: laser for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation,” ASAP for "as soon as possible."
In the case of most proper nouns, identify the complete series of words on first reference, and use the acronym only on second reference. Nevertheless, use an acronym only if an average reader is aware of its meaning. If an acronym is not clearly understood, do not use it just to save space. Do not list an acronym in parentheses after the series of words. That is unnecessary if the acronym is recognizable.
Most acronyms may be written in all uppercase (according to AP Style, though Merriam-Webster takes precedence). Examples of acronyms:
Written uppercase with periods, although this reference is usually unnecessary. It stands for Anno Domini, Medieval Latin for in the year of the Lord. The abbreviation precedes the numeral because that is the way the unabbreviated words would be read. Example: in the year of the Lord 12, A.D. 12. (Conversely, B.C. follows a numeral. See B.C.)
Do not say old adage. There's no other kind.
In tabular material or in a website footnote, it is acceptable to use the post office guidelines below. (See tabular material.)
Name of Person
Name of Department or Division
Building Name, Room Number
University of Cincinnati
PO Box 21xxxx
Cincinnati OH 452xx-xxxx
Note that department, division or office names should be placed above "University of Cincinnati," not below it. Note, also, that no periods or commas are used in the last two lines of the address, including the PO abbreviation. In editorial copy in brochures and publications, however, insert proper punctuation -- periods in P.O. Box and a comma between a city and state.
Name of Person
Name of Department or Division (xxxx)
University of Cincinnati
xxx Street Name
Cincinnati OH 452xx
UC Blue Ash College
9555 Plainfield Rd
Blue Ash OH 45236-1096
4200 College Dr
Batavia OH 45103-0162
More information is available in from the University Architect's office (Excel file).
When writing news releases about faculty and students, use the person's home address, when appropriate, following the person's name and enclosed in parentheses. Do not use house numbers on press releases. For Greater Cincinnati addresses, use street names and ZIP codes only.
When referring to an address beyond Greater Cincinnati, use the street name, city, postal state abbreviation and ZIP code. Example: Hanna Avenue, Middletown, OH 45102.
Adverse means unfavorable, contrary or hostile. Averse means having a strong feeling of opposition, antipathy or repugnance. Example: I was averse to taking my prescription, which created an adverse relationship with my doctor.
Use adviser for general purposes. Many times, however, advisor is preferred in academic references. Consider the audience.
Teaching, patient-care and research affiliates include University of Cincinnati Medical Center hospital, UC Health Drake Center, UC Health West Chester Hospital, UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians, Lindner Center of Hope, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Shriners Hospital for Children–Cincinnati, Jewish Hospital and Christ Hospital.
Hyphenate. The term is acceptable for an American black person of African decent, but be careful not to apply it to all blacks. For instance, Caribbean descendants generally refer to themselves as Caribbean-Americans. The term black is also acceptable. Follow an individual's preference.
Always use figures. Examples: The student is 19 years old. The student, 24, has a daughter 6 months old. The policy is 4 years old.
Ages used as a noun or an adjective before a noun require hyphens. Examples: The 19-year-old student ran for office. The racetrack features 3-year-olds today. (See compound modifiers.)
An age range requires no apostrophe. Example: The instructor was in her 30s.
Written without periods, aka stands for "also known as." The phrase is set off with commas or parentheses, but punctuation does not immediately follow the letters aka. It is used to mention another name, such as aliases, nicknames and pen names. Example: "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" was written by Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain.
Alas does not mean “finally,” such as, “Alas, I finally finished the project.” Instead, it means an expression of grief, such as, “Alas, my mother passed away last night.”
all, all of
Use the preposition of when the phrase all of is followed by a pronoun or a proper noun. Correct examples: all of your work, all of his effort, all of its contents fell out, all Americans. Incorrect: all your work.
When all is followed by a common noun, you may use of only if an article precedes the noun. Nevertheless, its use is discretionary. Acceptable: all of the ingredients, all the ingredients. Incorrect: all of ingredients.
All together means together in a single group. Altogether means completely. Example: Let’s go all together. I’m altogether shocked at your response.
alphabetizing with numerals
For lists that contain words and a few numbers, alphabetize the list as if the numerals were spelled out. Examples:
Changing of the Guard
Houses of Parliament
10 Downing Street
Tower of London
hairless wart hogs
three blind mice
truck full of cows
An exception could be argued if a list contained so many numbers and words that the writer preferred to place the numerals in ascending order prior to the alphabetized words. Such is the standard for Microsoft Word alphabetizing. A shortened example:
20-ounce can of putty
5-pound bag of sand
box of nails
Alumnus refers to one male who attended a college or to a former student of unspecified gender. Alumna refers to one female. Alumni refers to two or more former students, all or some of whom are all male. Alumnae refers to two or more females. People who attended UC, but did not graduate, may be called alumni.
Lowercase with periods. Avoid redundancies such as 10 a.m. Tuesday morning. (See entry for time duration.)
Avoid, unless it is part of a company or institution's legal name. Examples: Procter & Gamble (P&G), McMicken College of Arts and Sciences. Note the acceptable second reference for the college is A&S.
Don't use together. Reword the sentence.
Never say first annual. It's redundant. Second annual is acceptable.
Lowercase in all uses.
Any one means any one person or item. Anyone means anyone in a general sense. Examples: Does anyone really know what time it is? You can have one of the raffle prizes; pick up any one you would like.
Any way is a noun and is always two words. Anyway is an adverb and always one word. Examples: Is there any way out of this mess? (substitute “a way”) I hate those kinds of problems, but I’ll help you anyway.
Anxious implies fear or concern for a negative impact. Eager is the positive term.
Use this format: 513-556-5225.
The word means "many would argue." It does not present a very strong case for an argument.
Assume means to suppose to be true without proof. Presume means to take for granted in the absence of proof to the contrary. Presume can also mean "take excessive liberties," as in the adjective form presumptuous.
A person legally empowered to act for another, usually but not always a lawyer. Lawyer is a generic term for anyone admitted to the bar to practice law. Consult AP Stylebook for a more detailed explanation.
Use fall semester.
Awoken is not a word.
awhile, a while
A while is always a noun. Awhile is always an adverb. Example: Learning the new program takes a while, but if you wait awhile, I’ll help you.
Written uppercase with periods. It stands for before Christ. The abbreviation follows the numeral because that is the way the unabbreviated words would be read. Example: in the year 125 before Christ, 125 B.C. (Conversely, D.D. precedes a numeral. See A.D.)
B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) may be appropriate in some professional publications, but they are not the standard for general-interest audiences.
Generally no hyphen. Examples: bimonthly, bilateral, bilingual.
Biannual is twice a year or semiannual. Biennial is every two years.
Upper and lowercase all three words. This contradicts the way the conference writes BIG EAST Conference.
Means every other month or week. Sometimes confused with semimonthly and semiweekly. But for readability, twice a month is preferred to semimonthly; likewise twice a week is preferred to semiweekly.
Acceptable for a person of the black race, according to AP Stylebook. Can be used interchangeably with African-American if you are sure the person is an American with African heritage.
Preferred term is "regional campus" when referring to UC Blue Ash College or Clermont College.
branding (See entries for logo and seal, also.)
In 2002, the university adopted a consistent and coherent way to verbally and visually present itself to the public. For details, visit UC's Branding Initiative online. All uses of the university logo and seal are overseen by the University Brand Review Committee, headed by Angela Klocke.
Be mindful of your audience when naming campus buildings and facilities. In many cases, an abbreviated name commonly used on campus would be misunderstood by external audiences. Below are the names of buildings or facilities that can be confusing. In some instances, the complete official name includes a middle initial. Although the UC stylebook generally omits a middle initial (see entry for initials), they are included here because they are part of an official name. Use your own discretion in determining which wording works best for your audience.
When appropriate, use full names on first reference. For use on campus, however, certain unit, building and program names can be abbreviated on first reference if they are readily understood.
The following are official names for some UC buildings. In some instances, their accepted abbreviations, locations and the first name of the honoree are listed, as well:
UC has several campuses that are designated as follows:
Avoid these terms:
cancer institutes and centers
Capitalize only proper names. Avoid capitalizing generic terms (such as university, college, professor, faculty, administration, student life). Always be sure to include UC or the University of Cincinnati in the name if the context does not make it obvious. Specific examples follow:
The commitment by UC Athletics to win a Big East championship in every sport in five years — a goal that takes the Bearcats through 2011.
Preferred word is white because common ancestry related to the Caucasus Mountains region should not be assumed.
Capitalize center names when names are used in their entirety. Lowercase the word center when used alone. Use full name for first reference. Examples of preferred second references follow in parentheses:
Lowercase. Use the 20th century, not the 1900s.
Takes a hyphen when used as a compound modifier. Example: 20th-century writers.
Chief executive officer can be referred to as a CEO on first reference, but all other C-level positions should be spelled out the first time. Abbreviations can always be used on second reference. Use is tabular material could be an exception. (See tabular material entry.)
Preferred over chairperson. Chairman and chairwoman are also acceptable, especially if it is the preference of the person.
Follow the name of a U.S. city by its appropriate state abbreviation unless its location would be readily known to the reader. Example: Eugene, Ore. Usage will vary depending upon context and the geographic boundaries of one's readers.
Regardless, the following cities are so well known that they do not need to be followed by a state name: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington. (See also states.)
For cities outside of the United States, follow the name of a city with the country in which it resides. The following cities, however, are so well known that including the name of its country is unnecessary:
Amsterdam, Baghdad, Bangkok, Beijing, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Cairo, Djibouti, Dublin, Geneva, Gibraltar, Guatemala City, Havana, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Islamabad, Istanbul, Jerusalem, Johannesburg, Kuwait City, London, Luxembourg, Macau, Madrid, Milan, Monaco, Montreal, Moscow, Munich, New Delhi, Panama City, Paris, Prague, Quebec City, Rio de Janeiro, Rome, San Marino, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, Singapore, Stockholm, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vatican City, Vienna, Zurich
The U.S. National Institutes of Health explain that clinical trails are conduced in four phases, denoted by Roman numerals -- Phase I, Phase II, Phase III and Phase IV. Phase IV takes place after the Federal Drug Administration has approved a medication. Phase III is the last phase before approval.
Lowercase, as in "cloud computing" or "cloud technology" for collecting data using remote servers.
Use hyphen only when forming words that indicate occupation or status. Example: co-worker.
No hyphen. Short for coeducational. The word is generally not used to talk about a female student.
Some words can be singular or plural, depending upon their usage. Collective nouns can take a singular verb when they denote a single unit, but they can take a plural noun when they denote individual items. Examples:
colleges, degree-granting units
The university has 13 colleges and 14 degree-granting units. This is the list of official names of colleges and the one other degree-granting unit, with the acceptable second reference where applicable:
(Also, see references in the entry for capitalization.)
company, corporate, product names (See also trademarks.)
In general, follow the spelling and capitalization used by the company. Examples: inCircle, eBay, iPod, MasterCard, Macintosh, Kmart. Additional treatments of company names follow:
When you compare to, you look at the similarities. Example: UC Magazine has been compared to Rutgers’ magazine.
When you compare with, you look at similarities and differences. Example: When you compare UC’s magazine with Notre Dame’s magazine, you find both are excellent publications for their audiences, yet not for each other’s audience.
The whole comprises the parts. The parts compose or constitute the whole. The whole is composed of the parts. Never use the phrase comprised of. Consult AP stylebook for more information.
composition titles (See entry for publication titles, also.)
Use these guidelines for the titles of books, movies, operas, plays, poems, songs, television programs, lectures, speeches and works of art:
When two or more modifiers express a single concept before a noun, link the modifiers with hyphens. Examples: long-term assignment, full-scale investigations, small-business owner, part-time or full-time worker. But: She works part time.
The point is to clarify which word modifies which word. Examples: Squad helps dog bite victim. Squad helps dog-bite victim.
computer terms (See entry for Internet, also.)
Spelling of Internet-related words are aligned with the AP stylebook, including:
Congress, congressman, congresswoman
Capitalize the reference for the U.S. Congress and for foreign legislative bodies that use the word as part of a formal name.
Continual means repeated in rapid succession. Continuous means uninterrupted in time or space.
Hyphenate the abbreviated reference to cooperative education. Use the longer word on first-reference if the audience is unfamiliar with the abbreviation. Avoid using the word as a verb, but when necessary to do so, the correct spelling follows: co-oped, co-oping.
No hyphen in cooperative, but hyphenate the abbreviated reference co-op.
In strict grammatical terms, you should insert a comma between coordinate adjectives, although many people only insert commas when they clarify confusion. Whether you prefer the strict grammar approach or need to clarify a sentence, be sure you understand this usage.
Coordinate adjectives equally modify a noun. Example: the exciting, productive meeting. "Exciting" and "productive" equally modify the "meeting." Thus, commas are used.
In contrast, hierarchical adjectives modify each other in an order that sounds correct. The "little old lady" is a natural-sounding phrase, whereas the "old little lady" is unnatural. The order of the adjectives is important. Similarly, the "cold December wind" sounds correct, but the "December cold wind" sounds awkward. "Cold" modifies "December wind" more than it modifies the word "wind" alone. Those are hierarchical adjectives that do not take commas.
To identify coordinate adjectives, use the words in these two situations and see if they still sound correct.
This prefix never uses a hyphen. Examples: counteract, counterattack, counterbalance, counterclockwise, counterpart, counterreform.
Capitalize only, use no quotation marks or italics. When numbers are used in the course name, use Arabic numerals and capitalize the subject: History 6, Philosophy 209. Otherwise, lowercase: calculus, world history. (See composition titles.)
Hyphenated and capital C only. Not C-claw.
Undergraduate students who have earned at least 90 hours toward a baccalaureate degree or 45 hours toward an associate degree at UC qualify for graduation with Latin honors as follows:
Make sure your modifiers actually refer to the proper word.
dashes (See entry for hyphens, also.)
Dashes are longer than hyphens. Hyphens should not be used in the place of dashes. Dashes are always preceded and followed by a space, except at the start of a paragraph and sports agate summaries.
Publishing systems enable you to create an em-dash (the length of a capital M). Word-processing programs feature dashes as a "symbol," found under the "Insert" menu. Most software programs also allow the character to be key stroked. The help menu will provide instructions for your software. When dashes cannot be produced, two hyphens typed together are substituted. For Internet use, two hyphens may be used for a dash because some browsers have trouble reading the symbol that some software uses to create the dash. If using two hyphens, insert the space before and after the pair.
Dashes can be used in the following instances:
dates (See entries for months and years, also.)
When dates include a month and date, abbreviate all months. Exceptions are March, April, May, June and July. Examples: Jan. 15 was Martin Luther King's birthday. Their anniverary is sometime in January. Spring break starts on March 14.
When a a date and month is followed by a year, surround it with a pair of commas. Examples: My son graduated on June 9, 2001, from the University of Cincinnati. My son graduated in June 2001 from the University of Cincinnati.
Use only Arabic numbers after the month. Correct: Jan. 1. Incorrect: Jan. 1st, January first.
For readability and clarity, express dates of events in this sequence: time, day of the week, date, place. Example: The colloquium will be held at 4 p.m. Wednesday, Sept. 1, at the Faculty Club.
Dawn is the twilight period immediately before sunrise.
Follow prefix guildelines, hyphenating between vowels. Examples: de-ice, de-emphasize vs. debase, deride, debug, deforest, defraud, detour, derail. But some words (like deactivate) do not follow the rules. Check the dictionary.
Use lowercase and possessive. To be on the dean's list, a UC student must have a term grade point average of 3.4 or higher while enrolled in six or more credits per term.
Means to destroy a small part (exactly one-tenth). Not synonymous with completely or widespread destruction. Do not say somewhat decimated.
different from, different than, differently
Different from is usually right. Different than requires a verb. Examples: Holiday parties at a state institution are different than parties corporations have. Holiday parties at a state institution are different from parties in the corporate world.
When using the word differently, use than. Example: He led the meeting differently than I would have.
Refers to facing two unpleasant courses of action. Not a synonym for predicament.
Lowercase compass directions. Capitalize words that denote specific regions. Examples: He drove west. The Midwest is known for great basketball. (Consult AP stylebook for additional information.)
Hyphens are generally not used with this prefix. Examples: disadvantage, disallow, discontinue, dismount, disobey, disregard, displace, distrust. (See prefixes.)
Don't refer to people in terms of their disabilities, refer to them as people with disabilities.
You are disappointed in a person, with a thing.
Disassemble means to dismantle. Dissemble means to tell lies.
disc — In computer terminology, discs are optical and laser-based devices. Examples: Blu-ray Disc, compact disc, DVD, video disc. They are removable and can be ejected from your computer. Non-computer related uses of disc: photograph records and related terms (disc jockey), a type of vehicle brake (disc brake), circular steel tools with sharpened edge in a plow (from Latin discus).
disk — In computer terminology, disk refers to magnetic media on which data for a computer is stored. Examples: a floppy disk, the disk in your computer's hard drive, an external hard drive. They are always rewritable (unless intentionally locked). They can also be partitioned into smaller volumes. Non-computer related uses of disk: astronautical references (solar disk), medical references to one's back (slipped disk).
Not synonymous with invent or create. Something discovered already existed, but was unknown.
Disinterested means to not be biased about something, to have no personal stake in an issue. Uninterested means to not be interested. Example: She could chair the negotiations well because she was disinterested. But she would have been ineffective is she was totally uninterested in the points being made.
The dock is the water adjacent to a pier. You can dive off a pier into a dock, not visa versa.
doctor (See entry for MD.)
Do not use Dr. and MD together. Incorrect: Dr. David Davis, M.D. In most instances, Dr. is unnecessary — assuming the copy adequately explains the person's position.
Dr. only appears before a name on first reference and when the person is physician. Do not use the title Dr. for PhDs because the average reader associates it with an MD. When usage is required for someone with a PhD, copy should clearly explain the individual's type of degree. (See academic degrees.)
Do not use Dr. to refer to a recipient of an honorary degree.
dollar (See entry for cents, also.)
Use numerals like $5, rather than 5 dollars except in casual references or amounts without a figure. Example: My aunt gave me a dollar. For amounts of more than $1 million, use the $ and up to two decimal places. Example: He proposed a $4.5 billion budget.
The preferred term is residence halls.
double-check, double check
Double-check is the verb and the most common usage. Double check (no hyphen) is the noun.
This Latin abbreviation means "for example." A comma always follows it, and the phrase is either set off with a dash or put in parentheses. Example: UC has a large selection of club sports (e.g., ice hockey, handball, rugby).
Spelled out on first reference. On second reference, e-media is acceptable.
The three dots represent omitted words or a pause in speaking. They are preceded and followed by spaces: She talked about the morning traffic, her previous vacation, her son's wedding plans … and enough topics to bore everyone.
No hyphen, lowercase. (But words like e-book and e-commerce retain the hyphen.)
For references to email functions that appear as official names, generally, write the names uppercase with quotation marks, separated by commas when needed, treating them as titles to distinguish them from generic words. Example: To send the same message again, click on "Message," "Send Again."
Although UC email addresses are not case sensitive, writing letters lowercase is preferred for consistency of style.
Not the same as retired. The titles emeritus (male) or emerita (female) are bestowed on many, but not all, retiring faculty. Place the word emeritus after the formal title. Examples: professor emeritus of biology, president emeritus, dean emerita of arts and sciences.
Emeriti (all men or both men and women) and emeritae (all women) are plural nouns. Emeritus and emerita can be singular nouns or adjectives for singular and plural nouns. Examples: among the ranks of emeriti (plural noun), among the ranks of emeritus professors (singular adjective).
You can, however, change emeritus to emeriti when it follows a plural word. Example: among the ranks of professors emeriti. (See also academic ranks.)
Words using this prefix generally have no hyphen. Examples: engulf, enlighten, entangle, enrage, enmesh. (See prefixes.)
More commonly means a great wickedness, a monstrous or outrageous act. Should not be used to simply mean enormous size or extent.
Means a right to do or have something. Does not mean titled. Examples: She was entitled to the promotion. The book was titled "Gone With the Wind."
Latin abbreviation meaning "and others." Usually used at the end of a list. A period is required even if it does not fall at the end of a sentence.
Avoid using this Latin abbreviation, which means "and so forth." A partial list should be denoted as being partial in another way. If you do use etc., never use the abbreviation with the conjunction “and.” Example: Students enjoy UC's large selection of club sports, including ice hockey, handball, rugby, wrestling, rowing, etc.
As a rule, avoid using exclamation marks. They tend to look trite. If you absolutely must use one, never use more than one, and follow these guidelines in regard to placement with quotation marks:
Farther refers to physical distance. Further refers to an extension of time or degree.
Acceptable as a shortened version of facsimile or facsimile machine. Use as a verb is also acceptable. Example: He faxed the results of the survey to his clients.
Use lowercase unless it is part of a formal name. Examples: Federal Bureau of Investigation, federal District Court.
Fewer applies to numbers and modifies a plural noun. Less applies to quantities and modifies a singular noun. Example: She now eats fewer meals and less candy.
Only refers to a business partnership (law firm, engineering firm, architectural firm), not just any business entity. The Kroger Co. is not a firm.
In copy for general external audiences, write out the word, lowercase, referencing both years in the period. Example: fiscal year 2011-12. For internal documents in which abbreviations are standard, use FY11. (See listing for years.)
food names, food-related terms
Most proper nouns are capitalized when are used to name a food. When the food name has become generic in use, lowercase is used. That rule is inconsistent, so this link contains a lengthy list of the names of food and drinks, as well as culinary terms, complete with the proper capitalization, punctuation and spelling.
forgo vs. forego
Forgo means to pass something up or do without. Example: I’ll forgo the fried potatoes this time.
Forego means to come before something else in time or place. Examples: Megastars bring in top box-office dollars because their reputations forego them. A foregone conclusion means you made up your mind ahead of time.
Follow rules in prefixes, but hyphens are rare. Examples: forecast, foretell, foregone, foreman, forebrain, forefather. Exceptions come from nautical terms: fore-topgallant, fore-topsail, fore-topmast.
Do not abbreviate for cities and military forts. Examples: Fort Lauderdale, Fort Bragg, Fort Mitchell.
Means happening by chance, accidental. Not a synonym for fortunate.
Founder means to fill with water and sink. Flounder means to flop around as a fish, clumsy, confused.
Spell out amounts less than one, using hyphens: two-thirds, seven-sixteenths. Use figures for precise amounts larger than one, converting to decimals whenever practical. In tabular material, use figures exclusively.
To determine verb usage, follow this guideline: When the subject is a fraction or a word such as "half," "part," "plenty" or "rest," its intended number is suggested by the object of the preposition that follows it. Examples: Three-fourths of the enemy's army is wounded. Three-fourths of the enemy's soldiers are wounded.
No hyphen is needed with this suffix, which is always spelled with one L. If the last letter of the root word is a Y, change it to an I. Examples: resentful, stressful, plentiful. (See suffixes.)
Hyphenate this prefix to form compound modifiers. Examples: full-blooded, full-blown, full-court press, full-fledged, full-length.
One word in all uses.
Abbreviation for General Education Development. Use as an adjective: GED tests, GED certificate. GED is not a noun.
gender (See also sexist language.)
When possible, avoid words that assume maleness. Use humanity, instead of mankind. Male pronouns (he, his) are acceptable when the antecedent could be male or female — and are preferred over combination pronoun forms: he or she, his/her. Yet a better option is to revise nouns to plural forms: they, theirs. Avoid forcing neutrality with a construction that calls attention to itself. Avoid manufactured words such as spokesperson.
The General Education Program requires students in all academic programs to have an exposure to a variety of traditional academic disciplines, in addition to a concentration within a program or major.
Lowercase the words traditionalists, millennials and baby boomers. Uppercase Generation X, in keeping with AP style.
Depending upon usage, this work can be uppercase or lowercase, spelled out or abbreviated. (See abbreviated titles.)
May use GPA in all references.
A person who earns a degree, including an honorary degree, is called a graduate. (See entry for alumni, also.)
Capitalize when referring to a specific community: Greater Cincinnati.
Lowercase the reference for the country's permanent residency document.
Hay is a grassy plant used as animal fodder. Straw is the dry stalk of a cereal plant after the grain has been removed.
Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. If a single headline continues on more than one line, do not capitalize the first word of the other lines. Use numerals for all numbers and single quotation marks where quotation marks are needed. Follow standard spelling for all words, except for US, UN and UK, which have no periods in headlines. For U.S. states in headlines, use no periods for those abbreviated with two capital letters. Examples: NY, NJ, NH, NM, NC, SC, ND, SD and RI. Other states retain periods. Examples: Ind., Ky.
Two words. Never one word. It may need to be hyphenated as a compound modifier if usage would confuse a particular audience. (See entry for compound modifiers, also.)
Don’t confuse the two. Heroics involve dramatic talk or behavior intended to seem heroic.
Use only numerals. Do not abbreviate. Use no hyphens. Examples: Interstate 75, U.S. Highway 1, state Route 1A, Route 24. On second reference: I-74.
Historic describes an event of importance and shaped history. Historical describes something that just happened in the past.
Capitalize formal names. Examples: Christmas Eve, Kwanzaa, Rosh Hashana. Although Hanukkah has several spellings, this version is preferred by Associated Press. The 10 federal holidays follow: New Year’s, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Washington’s Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving and Christmas.
Means with hope, not I hope or it is hoped. Correct: We hope the budget will pass. Incorrect: Hopefully, the budget will pass.
In December 2012, University of Cincinnati Medical Center became the name of UC's primary teaching hospital. The hospital has changed its name several times since it first opened in 1823. The changes follow:
In addition, there is a UC Health West Chester Hospital.
Means to inflate or exaggerate the worth, even deceive. Synonyms are trick, swindle, not promoting or publicizing.
In type, hyphens are different than dashes. (See entry for dashes.)
Hyphens are sometimes used to avoid ambiguity. Examples: He recovered from financial collapse. He re-covered his sofa in gray leather.
Hyphens are used for connecting words, as in compound words (father-in-law), prefixes (pre-election), suffixes (emulsion-like), fractions (two-fifths), ratios (2-to-1 ratio) and scores (12-6 victory). They are also used to create compound modifiers (full-time employee). (See entry for compound modifiers.) To determine if a prefix or suffix requires a hyphen, refer to Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Hyphens are also used to denote timeframes, such as 9 a.m.-4:30 p.m. No spaces are required before or after the hyphen.
This Latin abbreviation means "that is." Do not use this to mean "for example." You should be able to substitute i.e. for the phrase "in other words." A comma always follows it, and the phrase is either set off by a dash or put in parentheses. Correct: At UC's open-access colleges (i.e., Raymond Walters College and Clermont College), a variety of two-year degree programs are available. Incorrect: UC has a large selection of club sports — i.e., ice hockey, handball, rugby. Correct: UC has a large selection of club sports (e.g., ice hockey, handball, rugby).
To infer is to read between the lines. To imply is to suggest something. Example: When Jessie said she was going home early, she was implying that she had nothing left to do, and I inferred that I should find more work for her to do each day.
Importantly means something done in an important manner. Never write “more importantly.” Example: More important, enrollment is on the rise.
The prefix meaning "not" never takes a hyphen. But the prefix has other meanings, which may or may not take a hyphen. Examples: inconclusive, inaccurate, incalculable (meaning "not") -- or inbound, infighting, indoor, inpatient, infield -- compared to in-depth, in-house, in-group, in-law. Best to check the dictionary when the prefix means something other than "not."
This does not mean "hard to comprehend." Instead, it means "not capable of being understood."
Delete Inc. from a name unless doing so makes the name confusing. Do not use a comma before Inc., even if it is included in the formal name.
Does not mean something cannot be set on fire. It means the same thing as flammable. It means an item can be inflamed.
Initialism is an abbreviation in which one writes a group of initial letters to represent a name or expression, and each letter is pronounced separately. Use all uppercase letters. Punctuation varies among these words, but no periods are used in headlines. Initialisms often are used in the following examples:
institutes related to health
Four institutes operate in partnership with the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and UC Health: the University of Cincinnati Cancer Institute, University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute, University of Cincinnati Cardiovascular Institute and Cincinnati Diabetes and Obesity Center.
Internet (See entries for computer terms, links and Web addresses, also.)
Uppercase as a proper name to distinguish it from other kinds of nets. May also be referred to as the Net, also uppercase. Spelling of Internet-related words are aligned with the AP stylebook, including:
Only in a few instances, this prefix is used to mean "not" and added to a root word beginning in an R, but when it occurs, hyphens are unnecessary. Examples: irrational, irresponsible. Note: Irregardlessis not a word, but a double negative. The proper word is regardless.
Means the opposite of what is appropriate, expected or fitting. It is not synonymous with coincidence. Example: It’s ironic that the inside of the building is colder in the summer than in the winter. It is not ironic that it snowed on my camping trip.
The first is possessive; the second is a contraction of it is.
Preferred spelling for the sacred book of Muslims.
Certain landmarks on campus are referred to with familiar shorthand. Be sure to use official names or designate locations before resorting to shorthand, as required by context for clarity:
Not a synonym for past.
Latino is the masculine word; Latina, the feminine. Latino can refer to a mixed group of both genders. The word refers to people of Latin American descent. When referring to Latinos plus all people with a cultural heritage related to Spain, use Hispanic. Use specific nationalities when available. Examples: Peruvian, Bolivian, Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Colombian.
lay, laid, laid, laying
In meaning to put or to place, lay is a transitive verb that requires an object. Example: I want to lay my books down. Notice, however, that once someone lays an object down, it continues to lie there of its own accord. (See entry for lie.)
lend / loan
Lend is a verb. Loan is a noun. Example: Please lend me the money. I will repay the loan.
No hyphen is used before this suffix. Examples: helpless, priceless, tasteless, worthless, tailless. (See suffixes.)
less / fewer
University of Cincinnati Medical Center hospital is a Level I Trauma Center, as verified by the American College of Surgeons. Usage style of the term is the one adopted by the ACS.
Lindner Center of HOPE
Technically, the Craig and Frances Lindner Center of HOPE, founded with a $30 million gift from the Craig and Frances Lindner and Carl H. and Edyth Lindner Jr. families. Located in the UC Department of Psychiatry, it is a nonprofit, mental health center offering scientifically-advanced treatment for mental illnesses. Part of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Can be refered to as LCOH on second reference. HOPE stands for "Helping Other People Excel," which is why it is all uppercase.
In meaning to rest or to recline, lie is a intransitive verb that cannot use an object. Example: He was lying on the floor. (See the entry for lay.) Lie is also the proper verb to use for inanimate objects in some uses: Once someone lays the newspaper on the counter, the paper lies there on its own.
like / as
When using this suffix, do not add a hyphen unless the letter L would be tripled (dill-like taste, shell-like shape) or the root word is a proper noun (Broadway-like). Standard usage would be businesslike. One exception from all rules is flu-like symptoms. (See suffixes.)
Likely is an adjective, meaning a likely outcome, not an adverb or synonym for probably. Examples: The board is likely to do so. Never say: The board will likely do so.
Delete Ltd. from a name unless doing so makes the name confusing. Do not use a comma before Ltd., even if it is included in the formal name. Use the same guideline for the following abbreviations: LLC (limited liability corporation), LLLP (limited liability limited partnership), LC (limited company), PLLC (professional limited liability company), PL (professional limited company), LP (limited partnership), LLLP (limited liability limited partnership), PC (professional corporation).
Lineup is a noun. Line up is a verb.
Generally, write the names of Internet links uppercase with quotation marks, separated by commas when needed, treating them as titles to distinguish them from generic words. Example: When you visit www.magazine.uc.edu, click on "Web Exclusives," "Audio Clips" to hear a champion whistler.
The UC logo consists of two elements: the words "University of Cincinnati" and the UC symbol. All UC publications must carry the UC logo in a prominent location, preferably on the front cover. Web publications must include the symbol on every page.
Use of the university's logo is protected under trademark laws. The logo elements cannot be separated, altered, retyped or recreated in any way. Please refer to the UC Branding guidelines online for complete information.
For use of the logo on specialty items such as T-shirts, mugs and banners, contact Carla Crabtree, UC director of licensing and contracts in the Office of General Counsel (513-556-3483). Any use of the logo by non-university entities must also be approved by that office.
Other uses not covered by those guidelines should be referred to the University Brand Review Committee. Contact Angela Klocke, 513-556-5223.
-ly (See suffixes.)
magazine, journal titles (See entry for publication titles.)
Capitalize the initial letters of the name but do not place quotation marks around it.
magna cum laude
Lowercase. Undergraduate students qualify for graduation with magna cum laude honors if their university grade point average is between 3.75 and 3.8999. (See cum laude.)
Preferred term is Uptown Campus. Main campus makes other campuses sound inferior.
Uppercase S, no space. A corridor that begins at the University Pavilion, includes TUC, the Student Life Center and the Student Recreation Center, then concludes at the Jefferson Residence Complex. It also includes the open spaces of McMicken Commons, Bearcat Plaza, the Mews and Sigma Sigma Commons.
Lowercase. No apostrophe s.
A student who has been officially admitted to a college.
Use may if something may have really happened. Use might if something is totally hypothetical. Examples: Her proposal may have been approved if she had submitted a formal report. (possible) Her proposal might have changed the future of the company if she had submitted it. (purely hypothetical)
As with all academic degrees, do not use periods. (This is an exception to AP.) (See entry for doctor.)
This comprises the Academic Health Center (which consists of the buildings associated with the colleges of medicine, nursing, pharmacy and allied health sciences), as well as Kingsgate Marriott Conference Center, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Hoxworth Center, UC Health Physicians Office — Clifton and the Charles M. Barrett Center for Cancer Research and Treatment. Usage preferred over the term "east campus."
See entry for campuses.
mid- (See entry for directions and regions, also.)
When using this prefix, generally no hyphen is used unless the root word is a proper noun. Examples: midair, midday, midlife, midterm, but mid-America, mid-Atlantic. But the geographic region Midwest is capitalized with no hyphen.
Also use a hyphen when connecting a word with a numeral. Example: mid-'70s.
Use a hyphen when referring to nurse-midwife. Example: University Nurse-Midwifery Associates.
Short for microphone. Use only on second reference or in casual usage. The verb and adjective forms are miked, miking.
When listing military rank as a title before a person's name, capitalize and abbreviate it in most instances. In secondary references, use only an individual's last name; omit the military rank. When naming the rank without a name attached, it is lowercase. Do not confuse rank with job descriptions such as machinist or radarman. Examples: Gen. George Patton is a general who served in North Africa. Patton received 12 medals during his career.
The following list shows how to write the more commonly used ranks as a title before a name. Any title not listed here is likely to be spelled out and not abbreviated. A complete list of military titles is available in the AP Stylebook, but is too long to list here.
admiral — Adm.
brigadier general — Brig. Gen.
captain — Capt.
colonel — Col.
commander — Cmdr.
corporal — Cpl.
general — Gen.
first lieutenant — 1st Lt.
first sergeant — 1st Sgt.
lieutenant — Lt.
lieutenant colonel — Lt. Col.
lieutenant commander — Lt. Cmdr.
lieutenant general — Lt. Gen.
major — Maj.
major general — Maj. Gen.
master sergeant — Master Sgt.
private — Pvt.
private first class — Pfc.
rear admiral — Rear Adm.
second lieutenant — 2nd Lt.
sergeant — Sgt.
sergeant first class — Sgt. 1st Class
sergeant major — Sgt. Maj.
specialist — Spc.
staff sergeant — Staff Sgt.
vice admiral — Vice Adm.
months (See entry for dates, also.)
Abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. when used with a specific date. My birthday is Jan. 15. Spell out when used alone or only with a year. Example: January 1989 was the coldest on record. When using a month, date and year, set off the year with commas. Example: June 6, 1944, was D-Day.
Use numerals. Examples: 5 cents, $5 bill, 8 euros, 4 pounds.
Means debatable. Use irrelevant or null, if that’s what you mean.
Spell out in all uses. Examples: Mount Healthy, the College of Mount St. Joseph.
Mice is the word to use when referring to the more than one computer mouse.
Multidisciplinary means many disciplines are present. Interdisciplinary means many disciplines are not only present, but are working together to accomplish something. Cross-disciplinary relates to the involvement of two or more academic disciplines, but in a less formalized involvement than multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary situations. Example: A multidisciplinary meeting might attract faculty from several colleges, each making individual presentations. An interdisciplinary meeting would attract the same experts, but instead of just listening to one another's presentation, they work together toward a common goal.
When used as a noun, the word means exactly 10,000. When used as an adjective, it means many.
Technically speaking, nauseous describes something that is sickening to contemplate, and nauseated indicates being sick at the stomach.
The word "year" is possessive in this usage and requires an apostrophe. Examples: New Year's Eve, but happy new year.
This format is acceptable when referring to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States.
Generally, hyphens are not used for words with this prefix. Hyphens are necessary before proper nouns, when a word is not listed in the dictionary or when confusion would result. (See prefixes.) Examples: noncredit, nonmetallic, nonprofit, nontenured, nontraditional, but non-nuclear, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-load-bearing tile.
Use word noon instead of 12 p.m. in all instances.
The word is related to notorious. It is not synonymous with noted.
Use Arabic numerals for numbers 10 and higher. Spell out numbers under 10. This holds true for all casual uses and distances. Examples: hundreds of items, two miles, Fifth Street, 12th Avenue, eighth century, 20th century,
The exceptions, which use numerals exclusively, follow:
Consult the AP stylebook entry for numerals.
May abbreviate to One Stop on second reference.
Preferred spelling. Orthopaedic is appropriate only when used in publication titles.
Most commonly, this prefix is used without a hyphen. Examples: outsource, outwit, outpost, outbox, output, outdated, outfox, outtalk, outpatient. Check the dictionary, but hyphenate any words you cannot find. (See prefixes.)
Because there are numerous examples of this suffix being used with and without a hyphen, it is best to follow the dictionary. Here are basic guidelines:
over / more than
Over relates to a concept of space. When referring to quantities, use more than. Example: Over 6 feet tall. More than $1,000. More than 10 minutes.
All caps. Abbreviation for Portable Document Format.
Means next to last. Not synonymous with ultimate.
Use as one word, preceded by numerals. Example: 5 percent.
Only one space should follow the period at the end of a sentence. (See entry for spaces for a greater explanation.)
Persons mean individuals with identities. People mean a large and anonymous mass.
Plethora does not mean "a lot," but means "too many." Example: If you have a plethora or ideas, you have too many ideas and probably don’t know what to do with them all.
Periods in the abbreviation when used in editorial copy in brochures or publications. Omit the periods for U.S. postal use on labels and in tabular material if needed. (See entry for tabular material.)
A podium is a small raised platform on which someone like a conductor stands. One stands behind a lectern. Tip: Podium comes from podos, meaning foot. Think of podiatrist.
When referring to police, use University of Cincinnati Police or UC Police Division. The UC Police are a division of the Office of Public Safety. As a state-designated police district, the UC Police are never correctly referred to as "campus security."
The UC Police department has two types of officers: police officers (sworn officers who carry guns) and security officers (unarmed, non-sworn). All are employed by the UC Police. Occasionally (usually at large events), UC will hire contract guards who are not, technically, part of the department — but even they are hired by the UC Police.
Be wary of words such as conceptualize, signage, health-care delivery systems, explicate, linkages, interface, replicate, input, output, utilize. Never use a big word when a small one will do.
When referring to the Internet, avoid confusion with publish. You publish on a site and post responses to a site or in a chat room.
Following the rules for prefixes can be tricky with this prefix. Generally, one should look up the word in the dictionary. Examples: postdoctoral, postelection, postgame, postgraduate, postmodern, postoperative, postscript, postwar, postdate -- but post-bellum, post-convention, post-mortem, post-op, post-traumatic.
You pour water. You pore over a book. (Hint: If you poured something over what you were reading, you wouldn't be able to read it anymore.)
Follow the rules for prefixes. Generally, hyphenate the word only if the first letter of the root word is an e. Also double-check to see if the word is in the dictionary. Examples: pre-empt, pre-election, pre-eminent, pre-exist, compared to prearrange, prehistoric, precondition, precook, prejudge, prenatal, predispose, pregame, preheat.
If a coined word uses the pre prefix and is not listed in Merriam-Webster, use a hyphen. Examples: pre-convention, pre-dawn.
prefixes meaning "not"
Six different prefixes can mean "not," thus reversing the meaning of a root word. Two of them — non- and un — are rarely confused as to which prefix to use. Examples: unethical, nonprofit. The other four are more similar and can cause confusion -- il-, im-, in-, ir-.
(See individual entries for these prefixes: anti-, counter-, de-, dis-, en-, fore-, full-, il-, ill-, in-, ir-, mid-, mis-, non-, re-, out-, post-, pre-, re-, semi-, sub-, un-, wide-. Also check the styebook's spelling guide.)
The word with e on the end relates to entertainment (a first performance). This version is the only one with a verb form. Premier means leader of a country, as well as first or most important.
One of its meanings is in the near future. It does NOT mean at the present time. To avoid confusion, use currently.
Principal (n., adj.) refers to someone or something first in authority or importance. Examples: school principal, principal player, principal problem. Principle (n.) refers to a fundamental truth. Example: principle of self-determination.
Lowercase. Do not abbreviate as PI on first reference.
Titles of an academic program are lowercase, unless proper names are used. Example: the fashion design program.
For names of non-academic programs, see entry for company, corporate, product names.
Be sure pronouns match the noun they represent in tense. Example: The Board of Trustees at its meeting (not theirs) ... .
Sometime, revising the sentence is necessary to avoid writing his or her. Incorrect: The survey allows each student to express their opinions. (Singular student does not work with plural pronoun.) Correct:The survey allows all students to express their opinions. (Students has the plural pronoun required.)
publication titles (See entry for composition titles, too.)
For newspapers, magazines, journals and other regularly occurring publications, capitalize the name but do not use quotes or italics unless needed for clarity. Examples: People magazine interviewed our visiting scholar. "People" interviewed our visiting scholar.
Capitalize only words that are part of the publication's formal name -- not the word magazine, for example, if it is not part of the official name. Examples: Time magazine, the journal Science. Check the mastheads to confirm formal names.
Although clever typographic elements may be part of a publication's nameplate, editorial content never uses graphic symbols or stylized fonts, including exclamation points, quotation marks, plus signs, asterisks, bold type or italic type. Furthermore, regardless of another publication's own styleguide, UC style says to always capitalize the first letter of all sentences, lowercase the word the when part of a publication's title and refrain from using all capital letters in a title unless all the letters are pronounced. Incorrect: The Cincinnati Enquirer, TIME magazine, ESPN The Magazine, LIFETIMES. Correct: the Cincinnati Enquirer, Time magazine, ESPN the Magazine, Lifetimes.
Place quotation marks around names of poems, books, movies, plays, operas, songs, television programs, lectures and works of art.
quotation marks (See entry for publication titles, too.)
Periods and commas, when used with quotation marks, always go within the quotation marks. Example: The project is "long overdue," said Angela. Dashes, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points go within quotation marks only when they relate to the quoted matter. Examples:
Means perfect example of quality. Not a synonym for epitome, which means means abstract, summary or embodiment. (See entry for epitome.)
Rack has many definitions and uses, including to rack one's brain, which more or less means to stretch one's brain as if it were on a torture rack. Definitions: The noun rack relates to a variety of framework. The verb wrack means to to torture, trouble or torment.
Do not confuse the rack with wrack, which means ruin or destruction. Examples: wrack and ruin, wracked with doubt, wracked with pain, nerve-wracking. The verb wrack is not used, as it is substantially synonomous with rack, and the latter is preferred.
Follow rules in prefixes, omitting a hyphen unless the root word begins with an E. Examples: re-elect, re-enlist, re-election, re-enter, re-enact, re-establish, re-examine, compared to reapply, reboot, reread, reuse, resell. Otherwise, follow Merriam-Webster Dictionary and common sense. Examples: resign (quit), re-sign (sign again).
Don't refer back or revert back to something. It's redundant. Back is the only way to go.
Refute does not mean "to argue against," but "to of disprove something with evidence."
Be careful of the phrase in regard to (never in regards to).
Renown is a noun. Renowned is the adjective.
Use RN for internal Academic Health Center stories only. For most external uses, content should spell out that the person is a nurse.
For consistency (before building names), use the following format: The class will meet in Room 392, Swift Hall.
Reserve Officers' Training Corps (plural possessive)
It can be singular or plural in usage, depending upon context.
Abbreviate as St. and Ste. in city name or person's name.
Former UC president who founded cooperative education while dean of the UC College of Engineering.
The scientific names for animals and plants are composed of two words, known as generic name and trivial name. The common house cat, for example is Felis domesticus. The first, or generic, name is always capitalized. The second, or trivial, is always lowercase. Both words are italicized.
seal (See entries for logo and branding.)
The University Seal is reserved for formal presidential, academic or board-related university publications as approved by the University Brand Review Committee. Use of the university's seal is protected under trademark laws, and seal elements cannot be separated, altered, retyped or recreated in any way.
All four seasons should use lowercase. Examples: spring, summer, fall and winter. Lowercase references to academic semesters, too. Example: spring semester. Uppercase all words in a formal name. Example: SAE Spring Fling.
There's no firstly, so you can't have a secondly, either. It's first, second, third.
Always hyphenate when used as a prefix. Example: self-appointed self-cleaning, self-destructive.
Hyphens are rare with this prefix, but follow the rules for prefixes. Also double-check to see if the word is in the dictionary. Examples: semifinal, semiofficial, semitropical, semi-invalid, but semi-automatic.
When semicolons are needed in a series to clarify individual elements requiring extra commas, then use the semicolon before the word and. Example: They will honor Mary Smith, communication professor; Bob Brown, engineer; and Barb Jones, nursing alumna.
Semicolons are also needed when two independent clauses are joined together without a conjunction. Example: Look out for professor Smith today; he's in a bad mood.
sexist language (See entry for freshman, freshmen, too.)
Unless referring to a known gender in context, avoid the use of masculine and feminine forms and masculine- or feminine-marked words as much as possible. This avoidance includes using alternatives to generic terms that contain masculine or feminine markers. Use parallel terms for both sexes: men and women, husband and wife, mothers and fathers. Don't refer to men as husbands and fathers unless women are also being identified as wives and mothers.
Be alert to phrases that suggest all readers are men. Use graduate students and their spouses were invited, rather than graduate students and their wives were invited. Avoid unnecessary references to a person's marital status. Examples:
Also be cautious about pronoun usage. Plural pronouns can eliminate the need for gender-specific pronouns. Avoid: A student nurse gains a clinical experience after she completes a certain amount of class work. Preferred: Student nurses have clinical experiences after they complete a certain amount of class work.
signature architect buildings
A major component of UC's Campus Master Plan, developed by Hargreaves Associates, are the following buildings, listed with the date they opened and the signature architects who designed them:
For formal building names, see entry for buildings, facilities.
In addition, the following green spaces and plazas were designed by signature architects:
This term refers to tools for sharing information among online communities. This can be done through blogs, Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, YouTube, Flickr, wikis and other forums. (See Internet for list of related terms.)
One space should be placed after all punctuation, including periods and question marks, at the end of sentences.
The use of two spaces between sentences was preferred with typewriters because mono-spaced characters made it difficult to determine the end of sentences. Books and newspapers, however, never used double spaces. The typographer took care of setting the proper spacing regardless of the text that had been turned in. Today, most computer software programs use proportionally spaced fonts, which automatically insert the proper amount of space after punctuation. As a result, single spaces between sentences are appropriate for all copy.
For people who find it hard to break the two-space habit, most versions of Microsoft Word will let you set a preference for how many spaces you want between sentences, and grammar-check will flag inconsistencies. You can also do a global search and replace (searching for two spaces and replacing it with one) after you are finished writing.
When using a state name with a city name in editorial copy, surround the state name with commas. Example: Her office in Evansville, Ind., has shown great profits. Follow the guidelines below for deciding when and how to abbreviate the state's name:
Guidelines for writing press releases differ. (See the entry for addresses.)
UC's preferred acronym for collectively referring to the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine. The Ohio Board of Regents uses the acronym STEM, omitting the reference to medicine. When appropriate to use the state's style, do so.
Many campus street names are confusing to an external audience and should be used only when necessary. Be aware that the following street names were changed in August 2004:
(Also, see entry for addresses for post office use and tabular material.)
The rules in prefixes apply, but hyphens are rare with this prefix. Examples: subterranean, subtext, subdivide, subprime.
summa cum laude
Lowercase. Undergraduate students qualify for graduation with summa cum laude honors if their university grade point averages are between 3.9 and 4.0. (See cum laude.)
The use of abbreviations and addresses that meet postal regulations, but not typical editorial guidelines, are acceptable in tabular material when lengthier material will not fit. Making such exceptions to standard style guidelines are also appropriate in website footer areas if it makes the content clearer and more usable.
No apostrophe. This is the name of a building, not a college.
Use figures for all except zero. Use a word, not a minus sign, to indicate temperatures below zero. Example: The day's low was minus 10, or 10 below zero.
That and which are two pronouns that are often used incorrectly. In general, if the clause in question could be omitted without leaving the noun it modifies incomplete or without altering the meaning, which should be used to introduce the clause, preceded by a comma. If the clause is limiting or defining, that is the word to use. Correct: He has invented a process that will supply the world with free fuel. The process, which was invented by A.J. Smith, will supply the world with free fuel. Incorrect: He has invented a process, which will supply the world with free fuel. (Consult AP stylebook entries for essential clauses and non-essential clauses.)
3-D is preferred.
Consistently use either the format from 3 to 5 p.m., or 3-5 p.m. In most cases, use only the starting time. The ending time is relevant only when listing a series of events. Example: Jeremy Johnson will be at CCM from 8 to 9 a.m. and in the Great Hall from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. ... Jenny Jones will be in the library from 11:45 a.m.-1:15 p.m.
In general, list the time, day and date in that order: 2 p.m., Wednesday, April 1.
Write a.m. and p.m. lowercase, using periods and with a space after the numeral. Correct: 8 a.m. Incorrect: 8am
Use noon or midnight, rather than 12 a.m. or 12 p.m., which are confusing. Avoid redundancy as in 10 a.m. this morning.
Lowercase and spell out most titles relating to people.
Trademarks must be capitalized, yet certain trademarks have become so common in English usage that we forget they are trademarks. Examples: Allen wrench, AstroTurf, Band-Aid, Breathalyzer, Dumpster, Fiberglas, Freon, Frisbee, Heimlich Maneuver, Jacuzzi, Jaws of Life, Jazzercise, Jell-O, Kleenex, LaserJet printer, Lucite, Mace tear gas, Magic Marker, Muzak, Photostat, Plexiglas, Realtor, Rolodex, Scotch Tape, Seeing Eye dogs, Sno-Kone, Styrofoam, Xerox.
Trademarks should be followed with generic terms, when appropriate. Example: Kleenex tissues. Better yet, avoid trademarks and just use the generic term as long as it is easily understood. For a more complete listing of trademarks, visit the International Trademark Association's website.
The Associated Press Stylebook states, "There is no legal requirement to use the trademark symbol."
Tristate (See entry for directions and regions, also.)
Uppercase when referring to the specific geographical Tristate area involving Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky area of Greater Cincinnati.
A Twitter message is called a tweet. The verb form of the word is to Twitter or to tweet.
To signify the University of Cincinnati, use UC, without periods.
The university's health system that includes University of Cincinnati Medical Center, UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians, UC Health West Chester Hospital, UC Health Drake Center, UC Health Surgical Hospital and Lindner Center of Hope. UC Health came into existence when the Health Alliance of Greater Cincinnati dissolved in 2010.
UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians
This is the multi-specialty clinical practice group of the UC College of Medicine faculty and is affiliated with UC Health. The group includes approximately 650 physicians and an additional 200 nurse practitioners, physicians assistants, psychologists and certified nurse anesthetists who provide care to more than 1 million patients annually through all Greater Cincinnati hospitals and nearly 30 outpatient locations. The group also provides physician coverage for the region’s only Level I adult trauma center and emergency departments at University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Jewish Hospital and UC Health West Chester Hospital.
The group has three offices, none of which use the words University of Cincinnati, as in the group's official name:
On second reference, you can refer to the group as UC Physicians.
No periods, all uppercase, two words. This is an abbreviation, not an acronym.
UC's strategic academic master plan, implemented by President Gregory Williams and unveiled at his investiture. Can be written as UC2019. The formal name is "UC2019►Accelerating our Transformation."
The university's strategic academic plan, implemented by former President Nancy Zimpher. The formal name was "UC|21: Defining the New Urban Research University."
Generally, no hyphens are used with this prefix, even if the root word begins with an N. Examples: untie, uncork, unpack, unreal, unknown, unaware, unnecessary. But, if the root word is a proper noun, a hyphen is needed (un-American).
One word in all uses.
Not a synonym for unusual. It means strictly one of a kind. Nothing can be rather unique or most unique.
Express the unit of measure in a singular form, and hyphenate the numeral and the unit when used as a compound modifier. Examples: 100-calorie snacks, 80-MB hard drive, 2-inch margins, 2-quart pitcher, 80-degree weather, 8-pound baby. Note: Do not hyphenate a compound modifier that contains "percent," which is not a unit of measurement. Examples: 35 percent increase, 10 percent raise, 3 percent tax hike, 2 percent tuition increase.
Do not capitalize university, except when used in a proper name. Examples: Classes begin at the University of Cincinnati on Sept. 22. The university began classes Sept. 22. The same usage applies to college, center, board, council.
University of Cincinnati Medical Center
Primarily refers to the hospital formerly known as University Hospital, but also includes the Charles M. Barrett Center for Cancer Research and Treatment, Holmes Hospital, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Center, Hoxworth Center outpatient clinics, the UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians Office — Clifton and psychiatry services at the former Deaconess Hospital. UC's health colleges are not part of this center.
Do not precede the name University of Cincinnati Medical Center with the article "the."
East Campus, West Campus and the Victory Parkway Campus combined. Replaces the outdated term Central Campus. Both words uppercase.
U.S., USA, United States
To signify the United States, use U.S., with periods. The abbreviation is acceptable as a nouns and an adjective. Periods are omitted from US in headlines. When writing USA, no periods are used.
The trickiest part of selecting the proper verb is determining whether the subject is singular or plural. Some tips for making that determination follow:
Verbal means written or oral. Say oral, if that’s what you mean.
Abbreviate as vs. in all uses.
In titles, use as a separate word without a hyphen. Example: vice president.
Not a synonym for actual or nearly. It means something has the effect but not the form. Example: When the president resigned, the vice president became the virtual head of the company, even though he had not been so named.
"Woken" is not a word.
When the name appears in copy not at the end of a sentence, set off D.C. with a pair of commas. Example: I am attending a Washington, D.C., conference.
Web (See entries for Internet and computer terms, also.)
Uppercase as an abbreviation of a proper name, but lowercase compound words formed with the word Web. Examples: World Wide Web, the Web, Web page, website, webcast, webmaster. Spelling is aligned with the AP stylebook.
In regards to formatting, generally follow the UC Stylebook for editorial copy. For content within the footer area of a Web page, however, you can use abbreviations when needed to make the content fit the space and to create copy that might be easier to read. (See related entry for tabular material.)
To save space, do not include http:// if the URL contains www. If the URL does not include www, the http:// may be necessary to avoid confusion. Use your own best judgment, but be sure the URL can be perceived as a URL and not as plain text.
Always include a period at the end of a sentence even if a Web address or email address appears at the end. Example: My email address is email@example.com. When possible, enclose URLs and email addresses in parentheses or brackets. Example: Please send me the file via email (firstname.lastname@example.org).
If a Web address cannot be kept together on one line of copy, never add a hyphen or other punctuation to a URL. Only allow a line-break to occur before a period, slash, dash or underscore so it remains obvious that the two lines belong together.
All academic colleges in the area bounded by Martin Luther King Drive, Jefferson Avenue, Calhoun Street and Clifton Avenue. It is often referred to as Clifton Campus, which derives from its location along Clifton Avenue, but the area is not in Clifton.
While means during the time that. It is used to link simultaneous occurrences. Do not use to mean although, whereas, and or but. In such circumstances, often only a semicolon is necessary.
When a phrase describes a person or an animal with a name, the pronoun who or whom always takes place of the word that or which. Example: I would like you to meet the student who worked with me on the project. Not "the student that worked with me on the project."
In deciding between the words who and whom, use who if the pronoun functions as a subject of a verb. To determine if that is the case, you can substitute the pronouns he, she or they for who. Examples:
Use whom if the pronoun functions as an object of a verb or preposition. To determine if that is the case, you can substitute the pronouns his, her or them. Examples:
This prefix usually takes a hyphen. Examples: wide-eyed, wide-angle, wide-open. (See prefixes.)
The word means ruin or destruction. As a noun, the word is generally used only in these phrases: wrack and ruin, wracked with doubt, wracked with guilt, wracked with pain, nerve-wracking. The verb wrack is usually avoided, as it is substantially synonomous with rack, and the latter is preferred. (See rack.)
Use X-ray in all uses, whether noun, verb or adjective. Use for both the photographic process and the radiation particles themselves.
Hyphenate as an adjective and an adverb.
The ZIP is uppercase because it stands for Zoning Improvement Plan. (See entry for addresses for on-campus ZIP code usage.)
Uppercase. Registered trademarks.