It is important to note that the research to date consists of construction validation studies, and that the assessment scales and instruments are being further refined through additional research as the instruments are implemented in larger settings. Construction validation research took place between 1999 and 2007 in four jurisdictions: 1) Colorado (prisons: N=154; parole: N=134); 2) Missouri (prisons: N=272; parole: N=150; probation: N= 310); 3) Minnesota (prisons: N=198; probation: N=233); and 4) Maui (probation: N=158).
The six tables presented below provide the research results to date. Predictions to relevant outcome measures are shown in Table 1, below. Most importantly, row 3, shows the correlations between all gender-neutral and gender-responsive scales with the outcome, offense-related, variable examined in each study. Results are well within findings for the more well-established gender-neutral risk/needs assessments.