Podium Presentations

In a podium presentation, each student presented their research story in a live lecture format lasting no more than eight minutes. View presenters' names, titles and abstracts below.

Morning Session (9-10 a.m.)

Room 415: Who We Are, What We Create, What We Leave Behind

Derrya Mathis, Health Science
Project Advisor: Rachel Gleason

Abstract: As a person ages, physiological changes occur that can impact both physical and cognitive function. Consequently, older adults commonly experience declines in balance and cognition. Falls can have a detrimental impact on function and quality of life. Identifying fall risk in older adults is important for healthcare professionals. Health professionals commonly use the Four-Square Step Test (FSST) to assess dynamic balance and the Trail Making Test (TMT) to assess cognition. Previous studies have found a relationship between the TMT and the FSST in patients with Parkinson Disease. Additionally, ankle mobility has previously been correlated with balance and grip strength has been correlated with overall function in older adults. This project examined the relationship between the FSST, the TMT, FSST with a dual task, ankle mobility and grip strength in health community dwelling older adults and healthy young adults. Further comparisons were made between the two groups. The small sample size must be considered when reviewing the data.

Sanath Chandramouli, Neuroscience and Political Science
Project Advisor: Leah Dean

Abstract: Franklin County displayed a significant reduction in its infant mortality rate (IMR) from 2011-2020, falling from 9.7 to 6.7. Despite this, the infant mortality disparity ratio (IMDR) between White and Black populations increased from 2011-2020. To better understand this phenomenon, we compare infant mortality trends within Celebrate 1 zip codes and Non-Celebrate 1 zip codes from 2011-2020 using publicly available data. Utilizing paired t-tests, we determined that White populations in Celebrate 1 areas had a significant reduction in IMR (9.2-6.4; p=0.0019), but Black populations experienced a non-significant reduction in IMR (19-13.7; p=0.325). Regression analysis further illustrated that the rate of IMR reduction for Black populations was almost 48% slower than for White populations. Finally, through paired t-testing we learned that the IMDR increase in Celebrate 1 areas was statistically significant (p=.0195), while the IMDR increase in Non-Celebrate 1 areas was not. This follows with our observation that in Non-Celebrate 1 areas neither White nor Black populations had significant reductions in IMR (7-3.4, p=0.1197; 14.1-9.3, p=0.0902). These findings led to questioning regarding how pandemic years may have affected these trends. The data hasn't been fully compiled, but current data indicates Black IMR increased greatly county-wide whereas White IMR decreased in Celebrate 1 neighborhoods. Taking this into account, there appears to be a racial equity crisis in IMR across Franklin County. Achieving the county goal of reducing IMR to 5.0 by 2030 in Celebrate 1 areas then is likely to require significant investment of resources into minority communities.

Nathan McCarthy, Geology and Paleontology
Project Advisor: Carlton Brett

Abstract: Echinoderms dissolve quickly after death; therefore, their fossils are generally considered rare. However, Late Ordovician rocks exposed by the Cincinnati Arch have yielded many excellent examples of echinoderms suddenly buried alive en masse and preserved beautifully. Here we describe two new occurrences of such exceptional echinoderm preservation, both from the Grant Lake Formation. At one outcrop, a layer preserves a fascinating community including hundreds of Cincinnati's City Fossil, Isorophus cincinnatiensis, and another outcrop nearby contains multiple echinoderm bearing layers preserving crinoids, edrioasteroids, and one interval containing a shocking twenty-six individuals of cyclocystoids, which are usually incredibly rare, especially in numbers greater than one. This study considers echinoderm population dynamics, intraspecies and interspecies competition, paleoecology, and taphonomy to rebuild a picture of Cincinnati 450 million years ago: near the Equator, sub-tropical, teeming with fascinating communities populated by echinoderms that have been extinct for hundreds of millions of years, and regularly attacked by severe tropical storms. These storms triggered mudslides that moved vast amounts of entombing sediment across the seafloor, rapidly smothering anything in its path. But in turn, these obrution deposits contain some of the most beautiful echinoderm fossils found, and the relative regularity of these occurrences in the tristate area including Cincinnati further emphasizes its paleontological, geological, and natural importance.

Room 417: Exploring the Beyond

Prasanna Adhikari, Astrophysics and Mathematics
Project Advisor: Matthew Bayliss

Abstract: The universe is ever-changing. The universe at a given age has a given abundance of matter and an expansion rate that limits the grandness of structure that can be gravitationally bound or formed. The further we look in space, the further backward in time we see the universe. So, we can test a cosmological model, a model for the composition/abundance of matter and expansion rate of the universe, by measuring the largest structures that formed at different epochs of the universe. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. The fundamental properties of the universe such as the expansion speed, fraction of dark matter, strength of dark energy, etc. affect how galaxy clusters form and evolve. Thereby, studying galaxy clusters lets us put constraints on the properties of the early universe and lets us study the evolution of the universe.

Rebecca Gilligan, Mechanical Engineering
Project Advisor: Kelly Cohen

Abstract: As manned missions to the Moon and Mars approach reality, measures must be taken to ensure the success and safety of such long-distance missions. Before humans can travel to the Moon or Mars, infrastructure for supporting life must be there. Needs such as shelter, food production, and the scouting for a location to set up these needs can be prepared in advance by unmanned aerial and ground systems. To date, when rovers reach the end of their working life on Mars, they are left there. A collaborative system made up of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unmanned ground systems (UGS), could address the problem of vehicle sustainability both on and off Earth. The collaborative system could provide additional capabilities such as recharging and the ability for a UGV to retrieve and repair a small UAS or another UGS. Some additional capabilities to a prototype system will be discussed. This research will evaluate previous Mars missions, their successes and limitations, and how collaboration between vehicles can solve some of these problems for future exploration.

Nathan Steffen, Aerospace Engineering
Project Advisor: Prashant Khare

Abstract: Re-entry of a spacecraft into the Martian atmosphere occurs at hypersonic speeds. As a result of those hypersonic speeds, the flow conditions undergo thermo-chemical non-equilibrium and cannot be treated as ideal. Furthermore, the density of the upper Martian atmosphere is extremely low (rarefied), meaning the gas flow cannot be modeled the same way it is at sea-level on Earth or under similar conditions. While substantial research has been conducted to investigate rarefied hypersonic flow physics for re-entry in Earth's atmosphere, there exist only a handful of research investigations that address rarefied re-entry phenomenon in the Martian atmosphere. The purpose of this research is to study the flow physics and surface temperature of a bluff body entering the Martian atmosphere at hypersonic speeds, and to compare its surface temperature to that of a bluff body entering Earth's atmosphere. This is done using an increasingly popular method to model the fluid dynamics of a rarefied gas known as Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). DSMC is a simplified molecular dynamics method which generates collisions stochastically based on the kinetic theory of dilute gases. Using DSMC, the outcome of this work will generate the knowledge of the flow and temperature fields that a bluff body will experience as it enters the Martian atmosphere. In the long term, this research will inform spacecraft designers of the heating loads that need to be developed to cooling strategies for manned Mars missions.

Anushkaa Parwade, Biological Sciences
Project Advisor: Yoshi Odaka

Abstract: Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic unicellular protist free living ameba commonly found in warm freshwater. Depending on the environment, it undergoes three stages of life cycle - trophozoite (infectious), flagellate (motile), cyst (dormant). The trophozoite form infects the central nervous system by entering the brain through the olfactory nerve in the nasal cavity, causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The infection is rapid and fatal, with a mortality rate of 97%. Our central idea is to promote cyst formation in Naelgeria, followed by targeting drugs to treat PAM. In this study, regulatory role of target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in Naegleria gruberi, a non-pathogenic species, was assessed. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified phosphorylation of glycolytic enzyme enolase and enolase-associating proteins when TOR was activated, making it an attractive candidate as a downstream target of TOR. Therefore, GFP-tagged Naegleria enolase was engineered and expressed in N. gruberi and murine MK4 cells, and subsequently, point mutations were introduced to the TOR-sensitive phosphorylation sites. We are currently investigating the effects of the mutations on enolase subcellular localization.

Room 419: Mobility and Organization

Anja Zickafoose, Sociology
Project Advisor: Oneya Okuwobi

Abstract: This research project analyzes The Salvation Army's Central Ohio Anti-Human Trafficking Unit as a racialized organization. Using Victor Ray's definition of a racialized organization various forms of literature was reviewed and a semi-formal key informant interview was conducted to answer the following questions: Is the Salvation Army's Anti-Human Trafficking Unit a racialized organization, Does the Salvation Army Anti-Human Trafficking Unit disproportionally give aid to white victims, and What can be improved upon within the organization to dimmish the organizational racism present? The outcome of this analysis will provide valuable insight that decision-makers within the Salvation Army can use to improve their innerworkings and policies.

Bianca Neale, Geology
Project Advisor: Josh Miller

Abstract: Historical skeletal remains provide important resources for evaluating extant small mammal diversity. Many raptorial birds can consume prey whole and regurgitate pellets of indigestible remains. Resulting pellet accumulations faithfully record local prey diversity because these birds feed largely indiscriminately. Here, we use pellet-derived bone accumulations to evaluate changes in rodent communities across the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. This region is dominated by three microtine rodents; collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus), North American brown lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus), and tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus), but there are limited data on community composition. Since pellets can accumulate across decades or more, they may be particularly useful for establishing long-term population metrics for microtine rodents that undergo dramatic population cycles. Pellets were collected during taphonomic surveys of tundra habitats (near seven major river systems. Mammalian remains were identified based on tooth morphology and pellets were summarized by the minimum number of individuals for each species. We find significant changes in microtine community composition across the Coastal Plain. The community is strongly dominated by lemmings in the west and voles in the east. The shift in arcsine-transformed proportional abundance of voles is continuous across longitude and is highly significant (weighted linear regression; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.75). This dramatic shift in the Coastal Plain microtine species was previously unrecognized. Our results illustrate that (i) even in species-poor tundra settings, biological heterogeneity can be high, and (ii) conservation paleobiology can provide novel insights relevant to understanding cryptic diversity changes in modern ecosystem.

Dominic Bley, Psychology BA, Philosophy
Project Advisor: Tehran Davis

Abstract: A flow state is a multi-dimensional subjective experience of synergy between one's abilities and a given task. Individuals experiencing flow report a heightened sense of action-awareness, concentration, control, amongst other phenomena. The sensation of flow has largely been evaluated using qualitative, survey-based methodologies. Recent work from Montull et al. (2020) reframes flow as an essentially embodied experience that may be quantified behaviorally using embodied  measures of actor's task related movements. Here, we followed a similar logic in combining the flow state scale survey and embodied measures to examine the relationship between the range of flow experiences and embodied movement dynamics when solving a Tower of Hanoi puzzle. Our results point to a relationship between measures of embodiment and the subjective experience of flow when completing the puzzle. Implications for experiences of flow in real versus virtual environments (e.g., performing similar tasks in virtual reality) will also be discussed.

Indranshu Das, Medical Sciences
Project Advisor: Qingnian Goh

Abstract: Neonatal Brachial Plexus Injury (NBPI) is the most common birth injury, and leads to the formation of incurable muscle contractures, or joint stiffness. These contractures severely limit mobility and functional use of the limb, resulting in deformity and dysfunction. Contractures are caused by impaired longitudinal growth of denervated muscles, and this deficit in muscle length is driven by elevated levels of proteasome-mediated protein degradation. As proof of concept, we previously showed that treatment with Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, successfully prevented contractures in a mouse model of NBPI. In this current study, we investigated the efficacy and therapeutic windows of additional classes of proteasome inhibitors in contracture prevention. Using our established mouse model of NBPI, we discovered that newer-generation of proteasome inhibitors prevented elbow and shoulder contractures at narrow dose ranges, but their therapeutic windows differed. Specifically, Marizomib (MRZ) differentially prevented elbow and shoulder contractures at distinct doses. In contrast, low doses of Carfilzomib (CFZ) and Ixazomib (IXZ) led to peak reductions in elbow and contracture severity. While CFZ is associated with high survival rates at all doses, high doses of MRZ and IXZ led to increased mortality. As all classes of proteasome inhibitors are able to reduce contracture formation, these results further validate the proteasome as a key regulator of NBPI-induced contractures. Furthermore, the narrow dose ranges of efficacy highlight the need for precise proteasome regulation in contracture prevention. Lastly, the toxicity of systemic proteasome inhibition highlights the need to identify muscle-specific targets for suppressing protein degradation to prevent contractures.

Anunita Nattam, Medical Sciences
Project Advisor: Danny Wu

Abstract: The equitable dissemination of health information depends on the readability levels of Patient Education Materials (PEMs). This study aimed to assess the readability of OB/GYN PEMs using four readability measures and compare the scores in four categories. The results indicated that the four readability measures are not consistent, the average readability level was 11th grade, and the governmental PEMs had the lowest average readability. Future work includes content analysis and advanced readability scoring and validation.

Afternoon Session (1-2 p.m.)

Room 417: Innovation and Access

Sofia Buckley, Health Sciences Pre-Med
Project Advisor: Dan Carl

Abstract: Introduction: Recent research has shown that superior frontal gyrus medial area 9 (SFG9m) may play a role in motivation. Our study aimed to use unknown and known short-duration cycling trials to determine whether SFG9M is specifically involved with effort regulation. This is based on the premise that effort regulation demands would be greater during unknown duration trials. We hypothesized that unknown duration trials would elicit a greater oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) response in SFG9m than known trials.

Methods: Participants performed a single-visit stationary cycling experiment comprised of 12 randomized trials of known vs unknown 10, 20, and 30 second bursts of maximal cycling speed. HbO2 response was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) for SFG9m and five control regions.       Subject number: 25 healthy adult participants.

Results: The 20s unknown trial demonstrated a significant difference in activity in SFG9m compared to the known 20s trial.  SFG9m was the only brain region significantly upregulated compared to the control regions. A significant difference in power output (W) was recorded during known and unknown 10s trials. However, this was not observed within the 20s and 30s trials.

Conclusion: It was observed that SFG9m was significantly upregulated in 20s unknown trials, indicating the possibility of correlation between SFG9m and effort regulation during exercise. However, this effect was not found in the 10s and 30s trials. However, the lack of hypothesized effect for the 10 and 30s trials could suggest that the experimental conditions were not entirely successful at altering effort regulation.

Kayla Ramirez, Sociology
Project Advisor: Oneya Okuwobi

Abstract: This study observes how retail stores, specifically chain pet stores, interact with the subject of race by examining various forms of literature produced by the company that follows a 'diversity' initiative. Diversity Ideology, coined by Sarah Mayorga-Gallo, is a form of racial consciousness that challenged Colorblindness, where racism was conceived as something from the past or as failing from people of color. Diversity Ideology is framed as the answer to racism while centering white people's desires and feelings. Pet Stores, like all organizations, are racial structures that can aid in systemic and institutional racial inequality. However, unlike other organizations, pet stores cater to small-domesticated pets rather than humans which gives off a facade of neutrality in terms of racial politics. How are pet stores racialized? By observing multiple pieces of literature produced by the company and interviewing a store manager of one of the chains in the cincinnati area, I believe that pet stores will utilize the diversity ideology in approaching race which convince workers that their company is diverse but in reality is not effective in reducing racial inequality.

Albaraa Tarabishi, Biochemistry
Project Advisor: Qingnian Goh

Abstract: Neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) causes complete muscle denervation in the upper limb, and leads to disabling muscle contractures. These contractures severely limit limb mobility, and are driven by impaired longitudinal growth of denervated muscles. A rare form of NBPI maintains afferent and sympathetic muscle innervation despite motor denervation. This type of injury is associated with normal muscle length and an absence of contractures in the affected limb. To decipher underlying mechanism(s) by which neural input governs muscle growth and contracture formation following neonatal muscle denervation, we must investigate the roles of afferent and sympathetic innervation in protecting against contractures. We have previously ruled out a role for NRG/ErbB signaling, the predominant pathway governing antegrade afferent neuromuscular transmission, in contracture modulation. In this current study, through chemical sympathectomy and pharmacologic modification with a β2-adrenergic agonist, we discover that sympathetic innervation alone is neither required nor sufficient to modulate contracture formation in neonatal mice. Despite this, sympathetic innervation plays a sex-specific role in mediating neonatal muscle growth, as cross-sectional area (CSA) of normally innervated male muscles were diminished by ablation of sympathetic neurons and increased by β-adrenergic stimulation. Intriguingly, alterations in CSA occurred with minimal changes to normal longitudinal muscle growth as determined by sarcomere length. Instead, β-adrenergic stimulation exacerbated sarcomere overstretch in denervated male muscles, indicating discrete regulation of muscle width and length. Future studies should elucidate the synergistic role of afferent and sympathetic innervation in contracture modulation, and further dissect the distinct pathways regulating cross-sectional and longitudinal muscle growth.

Alana Pringle, Nursing
Project Advisor: Melanie Myers

Abstract: I am conducting a survey to learn more about why underrepresented (Black African American, American Indian, or Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) 18-21-year-olds do or do not participate in health research.  In particular, we would like to examine the best methods for reaching and informing adolescents about research opportunities to make decisions about learning genetic information about themselves. We will conduct this research by creating a survey that includes investigator developed as well as previously validated questions to assess why underrepresented 18-21-year-olds do or don't participate in health research and why they do and don't seek medical care. I will send the survey to members of the African Cultural Center, the Ethnic Programs and Services, and members of the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program at the University of Cincinnati. Findings from the survey will help us understand barriers to participation in research amongst underrepresented groups and help us understand best practices to help all populations experience the benefits of research innovations and receipt of high-quality care.

Room 419: Society and (In)Justice

Eden Davis, Psychology
Project Advisor: Dr. Dana Harley

Abstract: Poverty overwhelmingly affects the Black community. African Americans compose 24% of those in poverty and African American minors represent 30% of children living in poverty. The impact of being impoverished not only negatively affects the adolescents' physical health but also their mental health. Seeing these issues, Dr. Harley created Photovoice as a Tool for Informing the Development of a Culturally Sensitive Behavioral Health Measure for Vulnerable Adolescents which questions how African American adolescents from low-income neighborhoods perceive and experience hope. Participants were asked to photograph what Hope means to them and were later interviewed. From these interviews five themes arose, those being basic needs, spirituality, education, personal agency, and caring connections. Seeing the photos and statements for caring connection, I decided to dive deeper and create my own research proposal. Photovoice as a tool for understanding the caring connections of vulnerable Black youth and adolescents​ questions how Black youth in low-income neighborhoods perceive their relationships with their parents or caregivers. Furthermore, how are these relationships connected to well-being?​ This study aims to understand the bond between caring connections and well-being. Understanding this relationship is vital in strengthening the Black communities' physical and emotional health and most importantly creating a culturally sensitive behavioral health measure that will assist vulnerable youth. ​If we as researchers can continue to be mindful and vigilant in helping at-risk youth, we can create a more culturally sensitive attitude surrounding their lives and motivate them to excel in their futures.

Erin Tedtman, Political Science and International Affairs
Project Advisor: Andrew Lewis

Abstract: This project explores the wide-ranging effects of incarceration that ripple beyond the individual, but also touch dependents, family members, and their broader community. Given the stigma associated with being a convicted criminal, research on the criminal justice system is not always focused on the well-being of the incarcerated person and their family. Public safety concerns are generally prioritized, resulting in the punitive carceral system we see today. These negative assumptions lead to a culture of mass incarceration that is not rehabilitative but instead traumatic as children are separated from their parents and communities are torn apart. By interviewing professionals involved in the criminal justice system (public defenders, Ohio Supreme Court Justice, psychologists, etc) and directly impacted mothers who were formerly incarcerated, insight into the realities of the Ohio criminal justice system become transparent. Data taken directly from the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction also provides quantitative analyses on currently incarcerated women. The outcome of this project will give those who have not been involved in the criminal justice system access to real stories that humanize the experiences of those who have. Most people can imagine how destabilizing a motherless home could be and how difficult any rehabilitation would become if you were entirely separated from your family and support system. This project seeks to inspire further research into the societal costs of the American carceral system.

Dylan Shoemaker, History
Project Advisor: Robert Haug

Abstract: I aim to answer the question of "how did the Muslim people feel about the invading European crusaders and vice versa from 1096 to 1149," with specific focus given to contemporary evidence from both Islamic and Christian sources. Beyond using memoirs from the time period, I have compiled a list of secondary books and research articles to flesh out an answer. I chose this period to showcase that the crusades were not based purely on hate and prejudice, and that both sides warranted a conflict. Despite these wars, love and friendship blossomed between the two belligerent factions, outlying a nuanced reality of how the crusades played out. The outcome of the work will dissuade the notion that this era was not "black and white" morally or purely hateful, but instead bring to light the fear and collaboration experienced by both the Christian West and Islamic East.

Emily Anderson, Sociology
Project Advisor: Oneya Okuwobi

Abstract: Recently there has been increasing debates over what should and should not be taught in schools. Diversity, equity, and inclusion, critical race theory, and intersectionality are topics that are celebrate by some and feared by others. With the potential bans of these subjects in multiple states and schools across the country I decided to look into a local school district that recently passed a resolution to make sure these topics stay out of their curriculum. I've found that at the center of these arguments is racial ignorance and intolerance. I discuss how the racial ignorance that is embedded in the logic of the school district and how this is harmful for current students and the future of society as a whole.

Room 425: You, Me and Our Experiences

Diviyashree Kasiviswanathan, Medical Sciences
Project Advisor: Umama Gorsi

Abstract: Each year, about 7.4 million patients are misdiagnosed in the Emergency Room, which leads to a delay or failure in treating the medical condition and it makes recovery difficult for the patient. Medical malpractice occurs because of short physician-patient interactions, overworked physicians, inexperience, and overconfidence. While the reasons for physician misdiagnosis are well-known, the magnitudinous effect of medical malpractice on patients is not well documented. This case study involves a 29-year-old young male with no traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease (or plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries). The patient had a very stressful event a few hours before presenting to the emergency department with chest discomfort. His initial EKG did not meet the criteria for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction or STEMI, and his initial Troponin level was borderline (0.1 ng/mL). When labs were taken in the morning, his Troponin level was elevated to about 4 ng/mL. The patient was immediately rushed to the Catheterization lab and a successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention was performed. The patient was discharged with no complications but was advised to follow up with an outpatient cardiology clinic. Overall, this case highlights the need for physicians to look beyond the traditional risk factors and consider patient symptoms and prior history for accurate diagnosis.

Lyah Bates, Exploratory, declaring Political Science in the fall
Project Advisor: Amy Lind

Abstract: In this essay, I will be conceptualizing what it means to be a "woman" to a young person with cancer. In our patriarchal society, we expect women to look, behave, and act a certain way. However, with a cancer diagnosis, these expectations feel impossible. Before our diagnoses, we were able to reap the benefits of a patriarchal society, but when we became sick, we could no longer. We are forced to consider our femininity as our perspectives of what matters is flipped upside down. I will be discussing navigating the pandemic while chronically ill and the struggles of "disclosure" when making new friends or pursuing a relationship. I will also be looking at the intersectionality of being chronically ill, a woman, and queer. In much of the research I have done for this paper, the perspective is from family members, from oncologists. I want to give cancer patients the opportunity to create their own narrative, one that is from the inside rather than from a medical or a romantic perspective.

Tori Visconti, Political Science and Sociology
Project Advisor: Oneya Okuwobi

Abstract: This study analyzes the racial ideologies of the meso-level, specifically the Hearing Speech + Deaf Center of Greater Cincinnati. Through an interview and key documents analyses, the primary ideology identified is diversity logic, with the tenant of diversity as intent a key framework. Although diversity logic calls for race consciousness, it is centered around white comfort, and equates representation to equality. Structural inequalities are seldom acknowledged, as the framework highly values white people's desires and feelings. Diversity as intent recognizes the good intentions of diversity in organizations, but again fails to address structural issues that cause the systematic inequalities of marginalized races. The primary goal of this research is to address how diversity logic affects the Deaf* community, specifically Deaf* people of color. This study explores the intersection between race and disability, and provides suggestions of equity logics organizations can adopt to address structural issues. The outcome of the work will further the study of racial ideologies in organizations.